Global jihadism unleashed by al Qaeda and co-linked Taliban and ISI operatives have essentially instigated a Clash of Civilization, though to be politically correct, to minimize the serious implications to global political stability, the politicians call it War on Terrorism, Iraq and Afpak wars. In addition to Iraq and Afghanistan Jihadism’s targets are US, NATO nations, Pakistan and India.
A stable but a militarily disengaged Pakistan can cripple global jihadism to deliver peace.
Insurgency and Sectarian Ethnic Violence in Pakistan
Unlike other nations Pakistan is the instigator of Jihadism and for last few years in the Afpak region a target of insurgency by a group of anti-army Taliban. The insurgency intensified in retaliations to continued successes of the US Drone attacks that have killed many leaders and operatives of al Qaeda and PPT (Pakhtun Punjabi Taliban) in tribal areas along the Durand Line.
A fear is that failure of Pakistan may destabilize the region. If jihadis come to power the nuclear assets may be taken over by jihadism dominated warlords to threaten the global peace. Nuclear deterrence works for Pakistan army at more than one level.
The insurgency has forced tens of thousands of refugees – mostly jihadi operatives – to migrate from Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK; NWFP in 2010 was renamed KPK that includes Swat Valley) to other four of five provinces (Baluchistan, Sindh, Punjab and Northern Territories, which include POK or Pakistan occupied ‘Azad’ Kashmir).
A major uprising led jihadis to take over the Swat valley around 2007-08. The army reactions (May 2009) to regain control of the district led to deaths of 1,200 Taliban and 100 soldiers. There after in Pakistan uprising spread from anti-army Taliban dominated tribal Swat to most of FATA and KPK areas and the army continues to move against Taliban while the American drone attacks target al Qaeda and Taliban leaderships.
Unless the army stems spread of insurgency and disarms private jihadi militias of warlord clerics in safe heavens of Pakistan the insurgency may engulf all five provinces of Pakistan. American and NATO forces continue attacking a few – al Qaeda, Afghan Taliban, PPT, and Haqqani group – jihadi camps, which are among an estimated 150+ jihadi camps all across Pakistan and they include various Punjabi, Sindhi and Urdu Mohajir co-linked Taliban factions (LET, SES, JEM, etc) and sectarian ethnic groups (MQM, ANP, HUM, HM, etc).
Sectarian violence in many urban centers of Pakistan is rampant and its spread is indicative of instability of Pakistan. There are 29,000 madrassah in Pakistan. These madrassah have trained youth in Wahabi-Salafi-Deobandi Sunni Islamic values and militancy for forty years (1970 -2010); an estimated 40+ of 180 million (2010) population of Pakistan during 40 years has turned reactionary fundamentalist Muslim (RFM). Moderate Muslim image of Pakistan continues to suffer.
The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan recently reported that more than 1,350 people had been killed in Karachi in targeted political killings so far this year, more than the number killed in terrorist attacks in all of Pakistan. Insurgency has displaced many thousands of ethnic Pashtuns from the northern tribal areas and sent them to southern port of Karachi and other urban centers including Quetta, Multan, Lahore, Islamabad-Rawalpindi, etc.
Ethnic Pashtuns have compounded Karachi’s gang culture for volatile ethnic violence. For the most part, extremists who torment the rest of Pakistan with suicide bomb attacks exploit the turmoil here to hide, recruit and raise funds. Major ethnic groups are MQM (ethnic Urdu speaking Mohajir or refugees from India) and ANP (Pashtun, Bihari Bangladeshi refugees displaced in the 1971 Bangladesh war of independence and other ethnics slumlords) live in Asia’s largest Orangi slum town spread over 50 square kms. Less than 40% of 18+ million in Karachi live outside of slums. Scholars and pundits speculate a potential for ethnic cleansing like in Bosnia may take place in Karachi in near future.
Punjab and Baluchistan provinces are not far behind in ethnic cleansing violence rampant in Pakistan, where minority Hindus and Christian populations have been reduced from about 20% in 1947 to less than 5% (2010). Sectarian violence against minority (30%) Shia’s, Sufis, Barelvis, etc by Sunni majority (70%) is a constant occurrence in these provinces.
ISI Co-Linked Terrorism
Pakistan’s Inter Services Intelligence’s (ISI) involvement in global jihadi terrorism is conclusively established by convicted spy David Headley in America and a Mumbai attacker Ajmal Amir Kasab’s testimony in Indian courts. The 26/11/2008 attackers on Mumbai according to Headley, an ISI co-linked Lashkar-e-Taiba (LET) operative, in statements to the National Investigation Agency (NIA) disclosed that an officer of the ISI was assigned to train him in the finer aspects of intelligence gathering and subterfuge, before he set off on his repeated recces of potential targets in India. Headley stated that the training given by ISI officer under the guidance of Major Iqbal was much more scientific and effective than the training he received in LET camps. The ISI officer trained Headley in building sources and handling them. For Mumbai operations, Headley effectively was spy-in-chief of ISI attached to LET.
Spy Headley and terrorist Kasab exposed ISI for sponsoring global jihadi terrorism. The capture and conviction of one of ten terrorists helped India corroborate Mr. Headley’s statements to conclusively established Pakistan as a state sponsor of global jihad.
Wikipedia article, “Pakistan and state terrorism” notes that the Pakistani intelligence agency, the ISI is believed to be aiding terrorist organizations in eradicating perceived enemies or those opposed to their cause, including India, Russia, China, Israel, the US, the UK and NATO nations.
• Pakistan’s intelligence agency, the ISI, has often been accused of playing a role in major terrorist attacks across the world including the 9/11/2001 attacks in the US, terrorism in Kashmir, the July 2006 Mumbai Train Bombings, the July 2005 London bombings, the 2001 Indian Parliament attack, the 2006 Varanasi bombings, the August 2007 Hyderabad bombings, and the November 26, 2008 Mumbai attacks.
• The ISI is also accused of supporting Taliban forces and recruiting and training mujahideen to fight in Afghanistan and Kashmir. ISI has provided covert but well-documented support to terrorist groups active in Kashmir, including Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM).
• Pakistan is accused of giving aid to the Taliban and its many morphed groups. The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) has openly admitted that more than 3,000 militants from various nationalities were still being trained.
• Pakistan is a haven for terrorist groups – Al-Qaeda, Lashkar-e-Omar (LEO), Lashkar-e-Toiba (LET), and Sipah-e-Sahaba (SES), etc. Pakistan also harbors some most dangerous Islamic terrorist organizations in the world, including the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LET), the Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM), the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HUM) and the Hizbul Mujahideen (HM).
• Based on communication intercepts, US intelligence agencies concluded Pakistan’s ISI was behind the attack on the Indian embassy in Kabul on July 7, 2008, a charge that the governments of India and Afghanistan had laid previously.
• The Afghan President Hamid Karzai, who has regularly reiterated allegations that militants operating training camps in Pakistan have used it as a launch platform to attack targets in Afghanistan, urged Western military allies to target extremist hideouts in neighboring Pakistan.
The Pakistani security establishment, according to a Pakistani journalist harbors in Quetta areas three major components of the Afghan militancy, – the Quetta Shura, the Haqqani network and Hizb-i-Islami (HI) of Afghan leader Gulbuddin. Dr Mohammed Taqi observed, “Both the proponents and opponents of the drone attacks agree that they are a tactic, not a strategy. There is little doubt that the campaign has successfully decapitated the senior Pakistani, Afghan and al Qaeda jihad leadership and disrupted their movement, planning and training, thus resulting in significant execution setbacks for them in the Pak-Afghan region and around the world. It is also pertinent to note that research led by the Pashtun intelligentsia has debunked the myth of high civilian casualties perpetuated by a pro-jihad media and some bleeding-heart liberals in the West.”
Soviet Power Implodes
Pakistan’s involvement in global jihad got started with America and Arab nation supporting to free Afghanistan from Soviet Occupation (1979-89). An economically broke USSR in 1989 withdrew from Afghanistan as it was unable to withstand Jihad from safe heavens of Pakistan. Pakistan and Afghan insurgents declared victory.
USSR imploded in 1990 disintegrating USSR. America and NATO nations declared victory in Cold War against Communist. The Cold War conducted for 45+ years after the end of WWII ended suddenly giving birth to a number of Eastern European and Central Asian nations that were under Soviet control. NATO forces commenced management of newly independent East European nations to insure that communism remains discredited as a viable political ideology.
Newly freed of Soviet domination, the Central Asian nations are week. They are rich with globally in demand natural resources. America and West wants access to the largest hydrocarbon deposits of the Central Asia region through pipelines connecting a warm water port in Pakistan via Afghanistan. An alternate possible route for transportation pipelines and roads to Arabian Gulf is blocked by the dictatorial Ayatollah ruled Iran.
Emirate of Afghanistan (1994-2001)
Afghanistan became a battle ground for various tribal Afghan warlords to fill the political vacuum created by Soviet withdrawals. Pakistan sensed an opportunity to occupy Afghanistan. Being militarily and economically weak it needed continued American and Arab financial and military support. Pakistan and Afghanistan were left hanging empty handed when America in 1990 stopped its aid programs for two nations.
Pakistan regrouped its jihadi terrorists to form the Taliban movement. The Haqqani military madrassah located near Khyber Pass in NWFP, now KPK is supported by funds from Arab nations and helped by Pakistan army. It is famous for training jihad to Afghan refugees and Mullah Omar. It recruited and sent students for jihad in Afghanistan (1979 -89) and in 1990s became a part of PPT (Pakhtun Punjabi Taliban) movement dominated by the Haqqani clan and Mehsud clan of FATA. Mullah Omar, a graduate of Haqqania madrassa with Quetta Shura, Baluchistan established Afghan Taliban.
With Pakistani army support Taliban moved in to Afghanistan at two fronts. The Afghan Taliban entered from Baluchistan, occupied Kandahar and progressing north towards Kabul. The PPT attacked Kabul and non-Pushtun northern Afghanistan areas controlled by Tajik, Hazara and other ethnic Afghan tribal warlords. On September 9, 2011, two days before the 9/11 attacks on US, a Tajik warlord Ahmed Shah Massoud was assassinated by PPT operatives of al Qaeda.
Afghan Taliban made rapid advances to capture most of Afghanistan, except some northern areas and declared establishment of and ruled an Emirate of Afghanistan (1994-2001). Taliban operated from Kandahar in South Afghanistan. Mullah Omar aligned his forces with Arab al Qaeda to get away from the Pakistani army controls. Al Qaeda supported by Pakistan had moved from Sudan and Yemen to the Emirate of Afghanistan. Based in Mullah Omar’s Afghanistan al Qaeda started threatening US and other nations.
Afghanistan is a poor economic basket case dominated by tribal warlord politics and major powers except Pakistan and Saudi Arabia did not recognized the Emirate of Afghanistan. The attacks on the landlocked nation were carried out only after American security was endangered (USS Cole and 9/11 attacks).
Pakistan and Arab nations were interested in controlling Afghanistan and extending hegemony to Central Asia. A goal was to create a stable Afpak tribal region to build pipelines and roads to transport Central Asian hydrocarbon supplies and mineral deposits to a port in warm waters of Indian Ocean. However, Pan-Islamic ambition driven al Qaeda and Taliban leaderships had other more sinister plans in store.
Al Qaeda Pan-Islamic Vision
Al Qaeda announced in 1990s a Pan-Islamic vision to establish next caliphate and it declared a global Jihad against America. The al Qaeda supremo Osama bin Laden had participated in Afghan war (1979-89) to defeat a superpower, USSR. The goal was to defeat remaining “sole” superpower America that supported corrupt dictatorships of Arab lands and especially Saudi Arabia. A caliphate formed by over throwing Arab Dictators was to control flow of hydrocarbon supplies to industrialized West and America.
On 9/11/2001 al Qaeda operatives successfully carried out attacks on America destroying World Trade center in New York and inflicting serious damage to Pentagon in Washington DC. America declared war on terrorism. One phone call from Secretary of State retired General Powell offered Dictator Musharraf a choice, “either you are with us or against us.” Dictator Musharraf immediately capitulated by agreeing Pakistan to be an American and NATO ally against al Qaeda and Taliban in Afghanistan.
Two Decades of Mismanagement
Pakistan’s goals in 1990s were limited to control of Afghanistan and gaining control of India’s Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) state. The other sinister plans in work were driven by a Pan-Islamic vision of al Qaeda and Taliban were its operational forces.
Pakistan conducted nuclear bomb test in 1998 after India had already conducted six underground nuclear tests. Both India and Pakistan became declared nuclear powers. America’s retaliatory sanctions were imposed against two South Asian nations for going nuclear in 1998, thus freezing all economic and military support to Pakistan.
Nuclear Pakistan started asserting its ambitions for hegemony of Afghanistan and energy rich Central Asian states. With its foreign policy of strategic depth in Afghanistan it had embarked on a regional jihad with occupation of Afghanistan by Taliban.
In 1998 – 99 presumably, without Pakistan army’s consent the elected Prime Minister (PM) Nawaz Sharif attempted to make peace with India. At the Lahore summit on February 21, 1999 Indian PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee and PM Sharif signed a peace declaration.
While peace negotiations were on, in March 1999 the COAS of the army – General Musharraf – surreptitiously moved units of Northern Army infantry regulars disguised as jihadi fighters across the LOC (line of control) and occupied Kargil Heights in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K). Presumably General Musharraf had not consented to the Lahore Declaration. With the Kargil war he tried to protect the army’s turf as the manager of Pakistan’s foreign policy.
Eleven years after the Kargil War, the Pakistan Army, which has been denying its role in the conflict, has quietly included the names of 453 soldiers and officers in the battle on its website. Musharraf lost the Kargil war during May – July 1999 to a very forceful conventional military response of India, establishing Indian army’s superiority over that of Pakistan. With the defeat Pakistan also lost America and the UN supporters for its ambitions to capture J&K.
The Pakistan-Indian peace initiative was suspended indefinitely.
Retaliations against Global Jihad and Afghan Taliban
Operation Gothic Serpent (August – October 1993) was conducted by America in Mogadishu, Somalia. Al Qaeda terrorist operatives successfully attacked an American target – USS Cole, an America warship suffered major damages off the coast of Yemen on 10/12/2000. It also recently (9/9/2010) scored against America in Mogadishu, Somalia. Al Qaeda attacks on American interests in Sudan and other nations of Africa as well as limited American responses are documented in references.
America and West considered such attacks as well as those in J&K regions as attacks conducted by criminal terrorist groups and took limited actions against terrorist groups. President Clinton for example ordered a missile attack on al Qaeda positions in Afghanistan but failed to kill Osama bin Laden as it had informed Pakistan that a barrage of missiles will be fired from American Warships in Indian Ocean to targets in Afpak region where Osama bin Laden was spotted. Media speculation was that Pakistan’s ISI had just in time alerted Osama bin Laden to leave the targeted area to take shelter in safe heavens of tribal Pakistan.
India in 1990s was focused on securing its border across LOC from terrorist infiltrations in to J&K and other parts of India to inhibit terrorist attacks. It was focused on a steady economic growth with a target of annual double digit GDP growth for uplifting economic power to finance build-up of its military strength and reduce poverty.
A political reality is until recently (2008 onwards), with a rare exception neither India nor America knew exact actionable locations of Terrorists hideouts. President Clinton’s attempt to kill Osama bin Laden was thwarted by double dealings of Pakistani army. The army has created a web of Taliban groups all across Pakistan and in Afghanistan to immune itself from being accused for Global terrorist activities. It is happy to let al Qaeda and Taliban take credit and blame for all Global terrorist attacks in US, Middle East, Africa and India.
America and NATO are taking gloves off in Afghanistan by increasing coordinated attacks with a combination of the raids, the airstrikes and explosives on the ground. Starting November 2010 it is deploying tanks to hit harder at Taliban. America and NATO are also planning to stay in Afghanistan until 2014.
Retaliations by Europe and America
Pakistan was warned by America after a failed attempt to car-bomb New York’s Times Square by Pakistani-American Feisal Shahzad (2010) that one more attack by Pakistani linked terrorist on American mainland will be retaliated against 150 known terrorist targets all across Pakistan.
There is acute awareness to increased activities for building new mosques by Muslims all over America. The planned mosque two blocks from the destroyed World Trade center site generated considerable backlash against Muslims all across America.
The policy of trials of terrorists detained at Guantanamo Bay American prisons in civilian courts has also generated public backlash in America and abroad as the attorneys failed to get convictions for 20 of 21 counts for a prisoner tried in a civilian court.
The British security agencies have been successful in neutralizing potential terrorist attacks by home grown terrorist cells. Recently (November 2010) British authorities were successful in intercepting terrorist bombs on a cargo plane from Yemen.
A 2005 report “Islamic Extremism in Europe” to House Committee on International Relations had suggested that the Islamist terrorist threat to Americans largely emanates from Europe. America was lucky five times but American may not be lucky for long according to Thomas Friedman of New York Times (November 8, 2010).
European nations including France, Germany, Denmark and UK have initiated in 2010 a variety of legislative actions against Muslims social and cultural practices that are incompatible with local social, cultural and political norms.
Attacking Technology Hubs of and Economically Developed India
Starting 1970s Pakistan has used terrorism in Kashmir to try to coerce India to agree to a peace under its terms and all such attempts have failed. Until 2001 most terrorist attacks were in the J&K. Starting with December 13, 2001 attacked by the ISI guided LET and JEM terrorists on the Indian Parliament Pakistan has used terrorism to attack all across India – Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mumbai, Pune, New Delhi, etc – in an attempt to arrest or derail India’s economic growth.
The targets in 21st century have changed from territorial disputes to disrupting economic growth of India. Instead of the J&K, which is now relatively quiet, terrorists hit technology hubs like Bangalore, Pune and Hyderabad, financial and entertainment centers like Mumbai, tourist spots like Jaipur, and the capital, New Delhi. Their task is to damage the sectors that drive India’s success: technology, trade, tourism, Bollywood, etc.
Unintended consequences of the ISI and LET guided Mumbai massacre continues to unfold two years after 26/11/2008. Responding to a law suite filed in American courts, A US court has issued summons to senior Inter-Services Intelligence officials including its powerful chief Maj. Gen. Ahmed Shuja Pasha, along with Mumbai attack masterminds and Lashkar-e-Taiba leaders Hafiz Saeed and Zakiur Rahman Lakhvi in response to a lawsuit filed by relatives of two American victims accusing them of providing material support for the 26/11 attacks.
If the threat of war is imminent, the hypothesis is, trade and investment drops and tourism plummets after every major terrorist attack. So Pakistan’s ability to harm India is infinite. It is a constant threat. If India, like Pakistan, is seen as unsafe, tourism will dry up, investors will go elsewhere, and trade will be diverted, and so on. Recent events – the President Obama’s just concluded visit (November 2010) – disproves the hypothesis. Additional details are published separately in a complementary article titled, “Technology and Political Ideologies.”
The plan seemed to work for a while after Mumbai attack (2008) as the attacks coincided with global economic recession (2007 – 09) set off by the financial crisis on the Wall Street, New York, USA. A general fear factor is that terrorism is a very cost-effective operation to bring global economies to suffer irreparably and that it will be tried again and again in US, UK, Europe and India.
This has nothing to do with Kashmir; it has everything to do with the economic trajectories of Pakistan and India. Unlike technology and development driven growth trajectory adopted by India, the rentier state Pakistan relies on rent collection for the army services to be a frontline state of America as a regional power of Central and South Asia. As Pakistan slides downwards to new economic depths, its Army does its best to stop India rising.
With each terrorist attack on India the army is sending a message that India can’t have uninterrupted growth by ignoring Pakistan. The army can and does deny peace in Afghanistan and South Asia in an attempt to stall regional opportunities for growth and prosperity.
The army uses terrorism to coerce not only India but also elected civilian government of Pakistan. The army coerces civilian government to protect its turf – the foreign policy of Pakistan.
Pundits argue that the more India grows, the harder it is for Pakistan to match India’s military expenditure or growing ability to influence the world. America and NATO forces are planning to have a nearly 300,000 Afghan army operational before they leave the area in 2014, the new suggested target date for withdrawals of troops from the region. A militarily strong Afghanistan, an economically crippled Pakistan and with India achieving a status of a developed nation by 2015 with a double digit annual economic growth potentially can neutralize military ambitions of the army and warlords in Pakistan.
References and notes:
1. Internet has made it difficult for professional commentators to manipulate news stories to present biased opinions slanted to protect national interests. Search engines allow readers to identify various points of views presented on events of contemporary history that impact on our daily lives. These are some references and notes used for this analysis and review.
2. “Terror revisited,” by Salman Tarik Kureshi, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010\11\27\story_27-11-2010_pg3_2
3. “Dirty dancing to the drone hum” by Dr Mohammad Taqi, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010\11\25\story_25-11-2010_pg3_2
• Both the proponents and opponents of the drone attacks agree that they are a tactic, not a strategy. There is little doubt that the campaign has successfully decapitated the senior Pakistani, Afghan and al Qaeda jihadist leadership and disrupted their movement, planning and training.
• The Washington Post reported (November 20, 2010) with an Islamabad dateline that the US has increased pressure on Pakistan to allow the CIA an expanded theatre for its unmanned aerial vehicles or drones operations inside Pakistan, especially in Quetta where leader, Mullah Omar of Quetta Shura is hiding.
4. Second Battle of Swat, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
• A map appears at the end of notes showing the districts of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and KPK with Swat Valley (Yellow), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swat,_Pakistan.
5. Karachi Turns Deadly Amid Pakistan’s Rivalries, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/19/world/asia/19karachi.html?_r=1&ref=asia
6. Dharavi not Asia’s largest slum, it is Karachi: UNDP, http://www.hindustantimes.com/Dharavi-not-Asia-s-largest-slum-it-is-Karachi-UNDP/Article1-451013.aspx
7. The Haqqania madrassa, http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1816/18160680.htm
8. For an excellent snapshot of Pakistani public’s mindset to insurgencies and sectarian violence all around them please see, Nadeem F. Paracha, “Manly cowards”; http://www.dawn.com/2010/11/21/smokers%e2%80%99-corner-manly-cowards.html
• Decades of engineered ‘education’ and propaganda ….. has conditioned ……(us to) become vocal and animated when words like India, Israel and United Sates are spoken, but we simply have no clue or indication about exactly how to respond to the terrible deeds of people and organisations who are doing so in the name of religion and a so-called ‘jihad’.
9. “Headley bares bigger ISI hand in 26/11 attacks,” http://www.hindustantimes.com/Headley-bares-bigger-ISI-hand-in-26-11-attacks/H1-Article1-631466.aspx
• “Headley, the US, Mumbai and LeT” by Naeem Tahir, in three parts.
• Part I, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010\11\13\story_13-11-2010_pg3_3
• Part II, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010\11\20\story_20-11-2010_pg3_3
• Part III, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010\11\27\story_27-11-2010_pg3_3
10. State-sponsored terrorism, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State-sponsored_terrorism The article identifies many nations including US, European Nations, India and Russia have accused Pakistan as a state sponsor of terrorism.
11. Afghanistan is a multiethnic population of 28 million (2009-10 data), “Demography of Afghanistan”, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demography_of_Afghanistan. According to http://afghanistan.saarctourism.org/ethnic-groups.html ethnic Afghan distribution is Pashtuns (42%), Tajiks (27%), Hazaras (9%), Uzbeks (9%), Aimaq 4%), Turkmen (3%), Baloch (2%), Nuristani and smaller tribes (4%). About 3 millions Afghan refugees during Soviet occupations migrated to and received refuge in tribal Pakistan, mostly in NWFP, Northern Territories and Baluchistan.
12. On September 9, 2001, two days before the 9/11 attacks in US, Tajik leader Ahmed Shah Massoud was assassinated in Takhar Province of Afghanistan by suspected al Qaeda operatives of PPT, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmad_Shah_Massoud
13. “In denial till now, Pak quietly names 453 soldiers killed in Kargil War” TOI, November 2010; http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/pakistan/In-denial-till-now-Pak-quietly-names-453-soldiers-killed-in-Kargil-War/articleshow/6947919.cms
14. Al Qaeda, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Qaeda
• Attack Against U.S. Embassy In Yemen Blamed on Al-Qaeda; WP, 9/18/2008 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/17/AR2008091700317.html
• Al-Qaida timeline: Plots and attacks; http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4677978/ns/world_news-hunt_for_al-qaida
• US Tentatively Re-engages with Africa; http://iwpr.net/report-news/us-tentatively-re-engages-africa
15. Operation Gothic Serpent, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Gothic_Serpent
• USS Cole Bombing, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Cole_bombing
• Somali suicide attackers hit Mogadishu airport, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11246394
16. Thomas L Friedman, “Why America’s luck against Al Qaeda is about to run out,” http://theweek.com/article/index/209086/why-americas-luck-against-al-qaeda-is-about-to-run-out posted in NYT on November 8, 2010. The jihadists have been on losing streak recently, but don’t expect that to continue.
17. Peter Bergen, “Islamic Extremism in Europe” (April 27, 2005), http://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/testimony/299.pdf
18. New York Mosque Controversy Fires Up National Campaign, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/08/02/new-york-mosque-controversy-fires-national-campaign/
• Islamic Center ‘Ground Zero Mosque’ Controversy Heats Up, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/islamic-center-ground-mosque-controversy-heats/story?id=11435030
• Karen Hughes: Move the New York City mosque, as a sign of unity, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/08/20/AR2010082002124.html
19. U.S. sending tanks to hit harder at Taliban; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/18/AR2010111806393.html
• NATO set for end-2014 withdrawal from Afghanistan; http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6AI32P20101119
• Biden: Afghanistan Withdrawal In 2014 Is ‘Drop Dead Date’; http://www.worldnewsmania.com/2010/11/19/politics/biden-afghanistan-withdrawal-in-2014-is-drop-dead-date/
20. “26/11: US court summons ISI chief, Saeed,” http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/us/26/11-US-court-summons-ISI-chief-Saeed/articleshow/6982284.cms
• WASHINGTON: The 26-page lawsuit was filed before a New York Court on November 19 against the ISI and LeT by the relatives Rabbi Gavriel Noah Holtzberg and his wife Rivka, who were both gunned down by militants at the Chhabad House in Mumbai. Their son Moshe was saved by his Indian nanny.
21. Map showing the districts of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and KPK with Swat Valley (Yellow); KPK was called North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swat,_Pakistan
The Swat valley is a part of NWFP adjoining the Northern Territory Province (NTP) to north side. Baluchistan is to south of KFK areas. Sindh Province is sandwiched with Baluchistan to west, India to east and Punjab Province to north. Punjab Province is sandwiched surrounded by KPK and Baluchistan to west, Sindh to south, NTP to north and west of India.
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